The call gives the buyer the right to purchase a currency pair at a given exchange rate at some time in the future. The put option gives the buyer the right to sell a currency pair at a given exchange rate at some time in the future. Both the put and call options give investors a right to buy or sell, but there is no obligation. If the current exchange rate puts the options out of the money, then the options will expire worthless.
Alternatively, the other type of option available to retail forex traders for currency option trading is the single payment options trading (SPOT) option. SPOT options have a higher premium cost compared to traditional options, but they are easier to set and execute. A currency trader buys a SPOT option by inputing a desired scenario (ex. "I think EUR/USD will have an exchange rate above 1.5205 15 days from now"), and a premium will be quoted. If the buyer purchases this option, then the SPOT will automatically pay out should the scenario occur. Essentially, the option is automatically converted to cash.
Options are used by forex currency traders to make a profit or protect against a loss. It is also important to note that there is a wide variety of exotic options that can be used by professional forex traders, but most of these contracts are thinly traded because they are only offered over the counter. Because options contracts implement leverage, traders are able to profit from much smaller moves when using an options contract than in a traditional retail forex trade. When combining traditional positions with a forex option, hedging strategies can be used to minimize the risk of loss. Options strategies such as straddles, strangles and spreads are popular methods for limiting the potential of loss in a currency trade. (To learn more on this topic, see Exotic Options: A Getaway From Ordinary Trading.)
Because of the risk of loss when writing options, most retail forex brokers do not allow traders to sell options contracts without high levels of capital for protection.
For more, see Getting Started In Forex Options.
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